# Implicit Language Q Learning

Official code from the paper "Offline RL for Natural Language Generation with Implicit Language Q Learning"

# Setup

### Preprocessed Data and Reward Model

Download data.zip and outputs.zip from the Google drive folder here. Place the downloaded and unzipped folders, data/ and outputs/, at the root of the repo. data/ contains the preprocessed data for all our tasks, and outputs/ contains the checkpoint for our Reddit comments upvote reward.

### Dependencies and PYTHONPATH

This repo was designed for python 3.9.7

pip install -r requirements.txt
export PYTHONPATH="$PWD/src/" ### Visual Dialogue Environment To run the Visual Dialogue experiments, you need to serve the Visual Dialogue environment on localhost by following the instructions here. ### Toxicity Filter Reward To run the Reddit comment experiments with the toxicity filter reward: 1. create an account for the GPT-3 API here 2. export OPENAI_API_KEY=your_API_key # Running Experiments scripts/ contains all experiment scripts. To run any script in scripts/: 1. Navigate to the script's directory. 2. python script_name.py Optional: • Edit the config file corresponding to the script as you desire. • Provide commandline args hydra style like: python script_name.py eval.bsize=5 train.lr=1e-6 wandb.use_wandb=false • Run data parallel training or evaluation on multiple GPUs like: python -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node [N_GPUs] --use_env script_name.py arg1=a arg2=b By default all training scripts log to wandb. To turn this off, set wandb.use_wandb=false in the training config. ### Recommended Experiment Workflow: Here I outline a recommended workflow for training offline RL agents. Suppose that I want to train a bunch of different offline RL agents to generate Reddit comments with the toxicity reward. I would first train a BC model on the data: cd scripts/train/toxicity/ python train_bc.py Then convert this BC checkpoint into one compatible with the offline RL models: cd ../data/ python convert_bc.py --load ../../outputs/toxicity/conditional_toxicity_official_bc_test1/model.pkl --save ../../outputs/toxicity/conditional_toxicity_official_bc_test1/model_converted.pkl Then edit the checkpoint that offline RL is configured to train with: cd ../train/ python train_iql.py model.load.checkpoint_path=outputs/toxicity/model_converted.pkl model.load.strict_load=false train.loss.awac_weight=0.0 This is just one workflow though, you can also train the BC model at the same time as the offline RL agent by setting train.loss.awac_weight=1.0 in the training config. # Repo Overview • All data is provided pre-processed in the data/ folder. • scripts/ contains all scripts for running training, evaluation, and data pre-processing steps in the paper. Scripts are organized into subfolders corresponding to the dataset used. • config/ contains .yaml configs for each script. This repo uses hydra to manage configs. Configs are organized into subfolders corresponding to the dataset used. Most config files are named the same as their corresponding script, but if you are unsure which config corresponds to a script, check the line @hydra.main(config_path="some_path", config_name="some_name") to see which config file the script corresponds to. • src/ contains all the core implementations. See src/models/ for all model implementations. See src/data/ for all base data processing and MDP abstraction code. See src/utils/ for various utility functions. See src/wordle/, src/visdial, and src/toxicity/ for all Wordle, Visual Dialogue, and Reddit comment dataset specific code respectively. • ILQL is referred to as iql throughout the repo. ## Config Framework Overview Each script is associated with a config file. The config file specifies which models, dataset, and evaluators are to be loaded by the script and their corresponding hyperparameters. See configs/toxicity/train_iql.yaml for an example. Each possible model, dataset, or evaluator object is given its own config file, which specifies default values for that object and a special name attribute, which tells the config manager what class to load. See configs/toxicity/model/per_token_iql.yaml for an example. The files src/load_objects.py, src/wordle/load_objects.py, src/visdial/load_objects.py, and src/toxicity/load_objects.py define how each object is loaded from its corresponding config. The @register('name') tag above each load object function links to the name attribute in the config. You may notice a special cache_id attribute associated with some objects in a config. For an example, see train_dataset in configs/toxicity/train_iql.yaml. This attribute tells the config manager to cache the first object that it loads that is associated with this id, and then to return this cached object for subsequent object configs with this cache_id. For all configs, use paths relative to the repo root. ## A Few Abstrations to be Aware of Each of the tasks in our repo – Wordle, Visual Dialogue, and Reddit comments – implements a few base classes. Once implemented, all the offline RL algorithms can be applied to the task in a plug-and-play manner. See the "Creating Your Own Tasks" section for an overview of what should be implemented in order to create your own tasks. Below, we outline the key abstractions that make this possible. • data.language_environment.Language_Environment – represents a task POMDP environment, which a policy can interact with. It has a gym-like interface. • data.language_environment.Policy – represents a policy which can interact with an environment. Each of the offline RL algorithms in src/models/ has a corresponding policy. • data.language_environment.Language_Observation – represents a text observation that is returned by the environment and given as input to a policy. • data.language_environment.interact_environment – a function which takes in an environment, a policy, and optionally the current observation and runs an environment interaction loop. If the current observation is not provided, it automatically fetches an initial state by resetting the environment. • data.rl_data.DataPoint – defines a standardized data format that is fed as input to all offline RL agents on all tasks. These data structures are created automatically from a given Language_Observation. • data.rl_data.TokenReward – defines a reward function given at every single token, which can be used for learning more fine grained control. This is provided on top of the environment's reward, which comes not at every token but instead after each turn of interaction. In all our experiments we set this reward to a constant 0, such that it has no effect. • data.tokenizer.Tokenizer – specifies how to convert strings to and from sequences of tokens which can then be fed as input to language models. • data.rl_data.RL_Dataset – defines a dataset object which returns DataPoint objects and is used for training offline RL agents. There are two versions of RL_Dataset: 1. List_RL_Dataset 2. Iterable_RL_Dataset # Wordle Task Here we outline and document all the components of our Wordle task. Much of what is in the example scripts is done automatically by the config manager, and the corresponding parameters can be edited by changing the configs. But if you want to bypass using the configs and use the Wordle task with your own codebase, you can reference the scripts and documentation below for how to do this. ### Playing Wordle: A simple example script for playing Wordle in the commandline. from wordle.wordle_env import WordleEnvironment from wordle.wordle_game import Vocabulary from wordle.policy import UserPolicy from data.language_environment import interact_environment from utils.misc import convert_path game_vocab = Vocabulary.from_file(convert_path('data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt')) env = WordleEnvironment(game_vocab) policy = UserPolicy() interact_environment(env, policy) ## Code Overview: • Wordle game implementation: src/wordle/wordle_game.py • Wordle gym-like environment: src/wordle/wordle_env.py • A set of handcrafted Wordle policies: src/wordle/policy.py • Dataset classes that load Wordle games from a file, sample games from a given policy, or load games from Twitter data: src/wordle/wordle_dataset.py To make the game a valid MDP, the environment represents the underlying state as a set of known letter constraints, and uses these to filter the vocabulary for words that meet all of these constraints at each turn. A random word is then selected from this filtered word list and used to determine the color transitions returned by the environment. These new color transitions then update the set of known letter constraints. ## Word Lists: The Wordle environment takes in a word list. A few word lists are given in data/wordle/word_lists/, but feel free to make your own. The word lists included are: • tweet_words.txt: a set of daily words corresponding to the days that the Wordle Tweets were scraped. • wordle_official.txt: the official word list for the pre-NYT version of the game. Taken from here. • wordle_official_200.txt: a random subset of 200 words from wordle_official.txt unioned with the words in tweet_words.txt, for retrofitting onto Tweet data. • wordle_official_400.txt: the same as wordle_official_200.txt, but with a random subset of 400 words instead. • wordle_official_800.txt: the same as wordle_official_200.txt, but with a random subset of 800 words instead. • wordle_official_guess.txt: the official list of allowable guess words in the pre-NYT version of the game. • 10k_words.txt: from MIT's 10000 words list. • large_words.txt: a massive list of words taken from here. ## Vocabulary: The word lists are loaded into the environment through a Vocabulary object as in the example above. from wordle.wordle_game import Vocabulary from utils.misc import convert_path vocab = Vocabulary.from_file(convert_path('data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt')) The vocabulary stores not just the word list, but also keeps track of a filtered list of words that meet all the known letter constraints in a given state. This list is used to compute transitions in the environment and is used by some of the hand crafted policies. Producing these filtered lists in real time can slow the environment interaction process. This shouldn't normally be an issue, but if you want to quickly synthesize lots of data from a policy, then this may become a bottleneck. To overcome this, all Vocabulary objects store a cache argument, which caches these filtered word lists associated with a given state. vocab.cache.load(f_path) and vocab.cache.dump() enables loading and saving this cache. For example, data/wordle/vocab_cache_wordle_official.pkl is a large cache for the wordle_official.txt word list. Beyond storing a cache, the Vocabulary object implements following methods in src/wordle/wordle_game.py: #### __init__ def __init__(self, all_vocab: List[str], wordle_state: Optional[WordleState], cache: Optional[Cache]=None, fill_cache: bool=True) -> None Inputs: • all_vocab: List[str] – a list of words. • wordle_state: Optional[WordleState] – a state from which to generate the filtered word list, if no state is provided, no words are filtered. • cache: Optional[Cache]=None – a cache for the filtered vocab, as described above. • fill_cache: bool=True – whether to add to the cache. Returns: None #### from_file def from_file(cls, vocab_file: str, fill_cache: bool=True) -> Vocabulary Inputs: • vocab_file: str – a file from which to load the words. The method only selects the words that are 5 letters long. • fill_cache: bool=True – whether to add to the cache. Returns: Vocabulary #### filtered_vocab_size def filtered_vocab_size(self) -> int Returns: The size of the filtered vocabulary #### all_vocab_size def all_vocab_size(self) -> int Returns: The size of the full unfiltered vocabulary #### get_random_word_filtered def get_random_word_filtered(self) -> str Returns: A random word from the filtered list. #### get_random_word_all def get_random_word_all(self) -> str Returns: A random word from the full unfiltered list. #### update_vocab def update_vocab(self, wordle_state: WordleState) -> Vocabulary Inputs: • wordle_state: WordleState – a Wordle state object, representing the set of known letter constraints. Returns: A new Vocabulary object, which is filtered according to wordle_state. #### __str__ def __str__(self) -> str Returns: A string representation of the filtered word list for printing to the terminal. ## Wordle Environment: WordleEnvironment takes a Vocabulary object as input, which defines the set of possible correct words in the environment. from wordle.wordle_env import WordleEnvironment from wordle.wordle_game import Vocabulary from utils.misc import convert_path vocab = Vocabulary.from_file(convert_path('data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt')) env = WordleEnvironment(vocab) initial_obs = env.reset() next_obs, reward, terminal = env.step("snake") As shown above, the environment implements a gym-like interface in src/wordle/wordle_env.py: #### __init__ def __init__(self, vocab: Vocabulary) -> None Inputs: • vocab: Vocabulary – the environment's vocabulary. Returns: None #### step def step(self, action: str) -> Tuple[WordleObservation, float, bool] Inputs: • action: Vocabulary – a string of text representing an agent's action in the environment. Returns: an (observation, reward, terminal) tuple. #### reset def reset(self) -> WordleObservation Returns: an observation. #### is_terminal def is_terminal(self) -> bool Returns: a boolean indicating if the interaction has terminated. ## Hand Crafted Wordle Policies: We implement a set of hand-crafted Wordle policies that cover a range of gameplay levels. All of these are implemented in src/wordle/policy.py. Here we describe each one: #### UserPolicy from wordle.policy import UserPolicy policy = UserPolicy(hint_policy=None, vocab=None) Description: Let's you play in the terminal. Inputs: • hint_policy: Optional[Policy] – another policy to query if you want a hint on what word to use. • vocab: Optional[Union[str, Vocabulary]] – a Vocabulary of guessable words. If not specified, any 5 letter sequence of chars is a valid guess. #### StartWordPolicy from wordle.policy import StartWordPolicy policy = StartWordPolicy() Description: To be applied only for the first word. Selects a word randomly from a list of curated, high quality start words. Inputs: • start_words: Optional[List[str]]=None – override the curated list of start words. #### OptimalPolicy from wordle.policy import OptimalPolicy policy = OptimalPolicy() Description: Myopically plays the highest information gain word from the word list that meets all known letter constraints. This policy is not actually optimal, as optimal play is NP-hard. But it plays at an extremely high level, and can be used as an approximate upper bound for performance. This policy is very slow to compute, with performance quadratic in the size of the word list; to save computations, self.cache.load(f_path) and self.cache.dump()allows you to load and save a cache. For example, data/wordle/optimal_policy_cache_wordle_official.pkl represents a cache for this policy on the wordle_official.txt word list. Inputs: • start_word_policy: Optional[Policy]=None – since the first word is generally the most expensive to compute information gain for, this allows you to specify a different policy to be called for just the first word. • progress_bar: bool=False – since it can take so long to compute, we leave you the option of displaying a progress bar for each call to self.act. #### RepeatPolicy from wordle.policy import RepeatPolicy policy = RepeatPolicy(start_word_policy=None, first_n=2) Description: Randomly repeats one of the first_n words already used. This is a maximally suboptimal policy, since it can never win unless it gets lucky on the first word. Inputs: • start_word_policy: Optional[Policy] – a policy to use for choosing the first word. If None, then randomly select a word from the environment's vocabulary. • first_n: Optional[int] – the policy randomly selects the next word from the first_n words in the history. If None, then it selects randomly from the full history. #### RandomMixturePolicy from wordle.policy import RandomMixturePolicy policy = RandomMixturePolicy(prob_smart=0.5, vocab=None) Description: Chooses a word fully at random from a word list with probability (1 - prob_smart) and chooses a random word from the word list that meets all known letter constraints with probability prob_smart. Inputs: • prob_smart: float – the probability of selecting a word that meets all known letter constraints, rather than one fully at random. • vocab: Optional[Union[str, Vocabulary]] – a word list to select from. If None, then the policy defaults to the environment's word list. #### WrongPolicy from wordle.policy import WrongPolicy from wordle.wordle_game import Vocabulary vocab = Vocabulary.from_file('data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt') policy = WrongPolicy(vocab) Description: Randomly chooses a word from a word list that fails to meet all known letter constraints and thus cannot be the correct word. If all words in the word list meet the letter constraints, then it chooses a word at random from the list. This policy is highly suboptimal. Inputs: • vocab: Union[str, Vocabulary] – a word list to choose from. #### MixturePolicy from wordle.policy import MixturePolicy, OptimalPolicy, RandomMixturePolicy policy1 = OptimalPolicy() policy2 = RandomMixturePolicy(prob_smart=0.5, vocab=None) policy = MixturePolicy(prob1=0.5, policy1=policy1, policy2=policy2) Description: Mixes two given policies. Select from policy1 with probability prob1 and select from policy2 with probability (1 - prob1). Inputs: • prob1: float – the probability of selecting an action from policy1. • policy1: Policy – the first policy to select actions from. Selected with probability prob1. • policy1: Policy – the second policy to select actions from. Selected with probability (1 - prob1). #### MonteCarloPolicy from wordle.policy import MonteCarloPolicy sample_policy = RandomMixturePolicy(prob_smart=0.5, vocab=None) policy = MonteCarloPolicy(n_samples=5, sample_policy=sample_policy) Description: Takes in a policy, runs n_samples of Monte Carlo rollouts in the environment, and selects the next action which received the highest average reward during the rollout process. Inputs: • n_samples: int – the number of Monte Carlo rollouts to execute. • sample_policy: Policy – the policy to sample rollouts from. ## Synthetic Wordle Data Any of the above policies can be used to generate datasets, which can be used to train offline RL agents. We implement, in src/wordle/wordle_dataset.py, two kinds of synthetic datasets: 1. wordle.wordle_dataset.WordleListDataset – loads Wordle games from a file. 2. wordle.wordle_dataset.WordleIterableDataset – samples Wordle games from a given policy. ### WordleListDataset: Load a Wordle dataset from a file like so: from wordle.wordle_dataset import WordleListDataset from data.rl_data import ConstantTokenReward data = WordleListDataset.from_file( file_path='data/wordle/expert_wordle_100k.pkl', max_len=None, vocab=None, token_reward=ConstantTokenReward(0.0), ) for i in range(data.size()): item = data.get_item(i) #### __init__ def __init__(self, items: List[Tuple[WordleObservation, Optional[Dict[str, Any]]]], max_len: Optional[int], token_reward: TokenReward) -> None Inputs: • items: List[Tuple[WordleObservation, Optional[Dict[str, Any]]]] – A list of data in the form of tuples of (WordleObservation, metadata_dict). Where metadata_dict is any sort of metadata is any sort of metadata you might want to store in the DataPoint. • max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated. • token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments. Returns: None #### from_file def from_file(cls, file_path: str, max_len: Optional[int], vocab: Optional[Vocabulary], token_reward: TokenReward) -> WordleListDataset Inputs: • file_path: str – the path to the data pickle file. • max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated. • vocab: Optional[Vocabulary] – simulate the dataset under a different environment vocabulary. If None, defaults to using the same vocabulary that was used to create the dataset. • token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments. Returns: a WordleListDataset object. #### get_item def get_item(self, idx: int) -> DataPoint Inputs: • idx: int – an index in the dataset. Returns: a DataPoint object. #### size def size(self) -> int Returns: the size of the dataset. The following scripts in scripts/data/wordle/ can be used to synthesize Wordle data. script description generate_data.py Samples a number of games from a given policy specified in the config and saves them to a file. generate_data_mp.py The same as generate_data.py except samples games in parallel on multiple processes. generate_adversarial_data.py synthesizes the dataset described in Section 5 of our paper, which was designed to demonstrate the difference between single-step RL methods and multi-step ones. generate_adversarial_data_mp.py The same as generate_adversarial_data.py except samples games in parallel on multiple processes. generate_data_branch.py Samples games from a given "expert" policy and then from each action in the game, a "suboptimal" policy branches off sampling a number of new games. generate_data_branch_mp.py The same as generate_data_branch.py except samples games in parallel on multiple processes. Some provided synthetic Wordle datasets are in data/wordle/. file description expert_wordle_100k_1.pkl 100k games sampled from OptimalPolicy. expert_wordle_100k_2.pkl Another 100k games sampled from the OptimalPolicy. expert_wordle_adversarial_20k.pkl The dataset described in Section 5 of our paper, which was designed to demonstrate the difference between single-step RL methods and multi-step ones. expert_wordle_branch_100k.pkl 100k games sampled using generate_data_branch.py from OptimalPolicy with the branches sampled from WrongPolicy. expert_wordle_branch_150k.pkl Another 150k games sampled using generate_data_branch.py from OptimalPolicy with the branches sampled from WrongPolicy. expert_wordle_branch_2k_10sub.pkl 2k games sampled using generate_data_branch.py from OptimalPolicy with 10 branches per action sampled from WrongPolicy, such that there is much more suboptimal data than in expert_wordle_branch_100k.pkl. expert_wordle_branch_20k_10sub.pkl The same as expert_wordle_branch_2k_10sub.pkl except 20k games instead of 2k games. ### WordleIterableDataset: Generate Wordle data sampling from a policy like so: from wordle.wordle_dataset import WordleIterableDataset from wordle.policy import OptimalPolicy from data.rl_data import ConstantTokenReward policy = OptimalPolicy() vocab = Vocabulary.from_file('data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt') data = WordleIterableDataset( policy=policy, vocab=vocab, max_len=None, token_reward=ConstantTokenReward(0.0), ) while True: item = data.sample_item() #### __init__ def __init__(self, policy: Policy, vocab: Vocabulary, max_len: Optional[int], token_reward: TokenReward) -> None Inputs: • policy: Policy – a policy to sample from. • vocab: Vocabulary – the environment's vocabulary. • max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated. • token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments. Returns: None #### sample_item def sample_item(self) -> DataPoint Returns: a DataPoint object. ## Wordle Tweet Data: We have a large dataset of over 200k Tweets of Wordle games like this: We can retrofit Words onto these color transition squares to create a real dataset of Wordle games. ### Preprocessing the Tweet Data: The raw Tweet data is given in data/wordle/tweets.csv, but in order to be usable, actual words need to be retrofitted onto the color squares in the Tweets. Performing this retrofitting process requires executing a preprocessing script which caches all possible color transitions that could occur under the vocab lists: guess_vocab (a set of guessable words) and correct_vocab (a set of possible correct words in an environment). The result is a data structure that wordle.wordle_dataset.WordleHumanDataset uses to synthesize valid Wordle games from the Tweets. This script is scripts/data/wordle/build_human_datastructure.py. Call the script like: cd scripts/data/wordle/ python build_human_datastructure.py --guess_vocab=../../../data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt --correct_vocab=../../../data/wordle/word_lists/wordle_official.txt --tweets_file=../../../data/wordle/tweets.csv --output_file=../../../data/wordle/random_human_tweet_data.json The script's args: • --guess_vocab specifies the set of guessable words. • --correct_vocab specifies the set of possible correct words in an environment. • --tweets_file specifies the raw csv file of Tweets • --output_file specifies where to dump the output. ### Loading the Tweet Data: We've run the preprocessing on some of the word lists, with the results saved in data/wordle/. word list preprocessed Tweet data file wordle_official.txt random_human_tweet_data.json wordle_official_800.txt random_human_tweet_data_800.json wordle_official_400.txt random_human_tweet_data_400.json wordle_official_200.txt random_human_tweet_data_200.json tweet_words.txt human_tweet_data_true_word.json Given one of these files you can load the Wordle Tweet dataset like so: from wordle.wordle_dataset import WordleHumanDataset data = WordleHumanDataset.from_file('data/wordle/random_human_tweet_data_200.json') print(data.sample_item()) We used 'data/wordle/random_human_tweet_data_200.json' in our experiments. ### WordleHumanDataset: #### __init__ def __init__(self, games: List[Tuple[str, List[str]]], transitions: Dict[str, Dict[str, List[str]]], use_true_word: bool, max_len: Optional[int], token_reward: TokenReward, game_indexes: Optional[List[int]], top_p: Optional[float]) -> None Inputs: • games: List[Tuple[str, List[str]]] – a list of tuples of the form (correct_wordle_word, wordle_transitions_list), where wordle_transitions_list is a list of transitions indicating the colors in the Tweet like: ["<b><b><y><y><b>", "<g><b><b><b><b>", "<g><g><y><b><b>", "<g><g><g><g><g>"]. • transitions: Dict[str, Dict[str, List[str]]] – a dict mapping the correct wordle word to another dict mapping possible color transitions that could have been induced by that word to a list of words that could have been played to cause that transition. This data structure is used to retrofit words onto the Tweets. • use_true_word: bool – if True, use the ground-truth correct word from the tweet, else retrofit any correct word in the word list that works. • max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated. • token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments. • game_indexes: Optional[List[int]] – a list of indexes to create a split of the Tweets. If None, all items in the data will be used. We have data/wordle/human_eval_idxs.json and data/wordle/human_train_idxs.json created as randomly selected train and eval splits. • top_p: Optional[float] – filter for the top_p performing percent of the data. If None, no data will be filtered. Used with %BC models. Returns: None #### from_file def from_file(cls, file_path: str, use_true_word: bool=False, max_len: Optional[int]=None, token_reward: Optional[TokenReward]=None, top_p: Optional[float]=None) -> WordleHumanDataset Inputs: • file_path: str – the path to the json file to load the data from. • use_true_word: bool – if True, use the ground-truth correct word from the tweet, else retrofit any correct word in the word list that works. • max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated. • token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments. • game_indexes: Optional[List[int]] – a list of indexes to create a split of the Tweets. If None, all items in the data will be used. We have data/wordle/human_eval_idxs.json and data/wordle/human_train_idxs.json created as randomly selected train and eval splits. • top_p: Optional[float] – filter for the top_p performing percent of the data. If None, no data will be filtered. Used with %BC models. Returns: a WordleHumanDataset object. #### sample_item def sample_item(self) -> DataPoint Returns: a DataPoint object. ## Wordle Training and Evaluation Scripts Training scripts are in scripts/train/wordle/. script description train_bc.py Train a BC agent. train_iql.py Train an ILQL agent. Evaluation scripts are in scripts/eval/wordle/. script description eval_policy.py Evaluate a BC or ILQL agent in the Wordle environment. eval_q_rank.py An evaluation script for comparing the relative rank of Q values for agents trained on the synthetic dataset described in Section 5 of our paper, which was designed to demonstrate a difference between single-step RL and multi-step RL. distill_policy_eval.py Prints out the result of eval_policy.py with error bars. # Visual Dialogue Question Asking Task Here we outline how to load the Visual Dialogue data in our codebase and how to execute the environment. See the setup section above for how to setup the remote components of the Visual Dialogue environment. The data and environment objects are loaded automatically by the config manager, but if you want to by-pass the config system and use the environment with your own codebase, here's how you should load, execute, and configure these objects. The same settings described below can all be modified in the configs as well. ### Loading the Visual Dialogue environment: An example of how to load the Visual Dialogue environment: from visdial.visdial_env import VDEnvironment from visdial.visdial_base import VisDialogueData from visdial.visdial_dataset import VisDialListDataset from data.rl_data import ConstantTokenReward from utils.misc import convert_path data = VisDialogueData( data_path=convert_path('data/vis_dialogue/raw/visdial_0.5/visdial_0.5_train.json'), img_feat_path=convert_path('data/vis_dialogue/processed/visdial_0.5/data_img.h5'), split='train', reward_cache=convert_path('data/vis_dialogue/processed/visdial_0.5/train_rank_reward_cache1.json'), yn_reward_kind='none' ) list_data = VisDialListDataset( data=data, max_len=None, token_reward=ConstantTokenReward(0.0) ) env = VDEnvironment( dataset=list_data, url='http://localhost:5000/step_rank', yn_reward=-2.0, yn_reward_kind='none' ) print(env.reset()) The above script corresponds to how we configured the dataset and environment for our 'standard' reward experiments, but if you want to configure the dataset differently, there are many arguments you can modify. Beyond just changing the dataset split, these arguments can also change the task or reward. Below we describe all the different configurable parameters that VisDialogueData, VisDialListDataset, and VDEnvironment take. ## Documentation: We document the parameters and methods for VisDialogueData, VisDialListDataset, and VDEnvironment, so you know how to configure the environment yourself. ### VisDialogueData: VisDialogueData, implemented in src/visdial/visdial_base.py, stores the task's set of dialogues and rewards. #### __init__ def __init__(self, data_path: str, img_feat_path: str, split: str, reward_cache: Optional[str]=None, norm_img_feats: bool=True, reward_shift: float=0.0, reward_scale: float=1.0, addition_scenes: Optional[List[Scene]]=None, mode: str='env_stops', cutoff_rule: Optional[CutoffRule]=None, yn_reward: float=-2.0, yn_reward_kind: str='none') -> None Inputs: • data_path: str – the path to the dialogue data. Should be one of: 1. data/vis_dialogue/raw/visdial_0.5/visdial_0.5_train.json 2. data/vis_dialogue/raw/visdial_0.5/visdial_0.5_val.json 3. data/vis_dialogue/raw/visdial_0.5/visdial_0.5_test.json • img_feat_path: str – the path to the image features used to compute the reward for each dialogue. Should always be data/vis_dialogue/processed/visdial_0.5/data_img.h5. • split: str – one of train, val, or test. Indicates which dataset split of the image features to use. Should be consistent with the data_path split. • reward_cache: Optional[str]=None – where the rewards for each dialogue are stored. If None, it will set all rewards to None. We provide caches for two reward functions: 1. The reward for the percentile-rank reward function we used in our paper is cached at: data/vis_dialogue/processed/visdial_0.5/[split]_rank_reward_cache1.json, where [split] is replaced by one of train, val, or test. 2. The euclidean distance based reward used by the paper Learning Cooperative Visual Dialog Agents with Deep Reinforcement Learning is cached at: data/vis_dialogue/processed/visdial_0.5/[split]_reward_cache2.json, where [split] is replaced by one of train, val, or test. • norm_img_feats: bool=True – whether to normalize the image features. • reward_shift: float=0.0 – shift the reward by this amount. • reward_scale: float=1.0 – scale the reward by this amount. • addition_scenes: Optional[List[Scene]]=None – Inject additional data into the dataset. •  mode: str='env_stops' – one of ['agent_stops', 'env_stops', '10_stop']. Controls some properties of the task. We use env_stops • If mode='env_stops', then stop environment interaction early according to cutoff_rule. • If mode='agent_stops', then the agent stops interaction by generating a special <stop> token during its action; augments the data by placing a <stop> after every possible action. • If mode='10_stop', the play always stops after 10 rounds of interaction, as is standard in the Visual Dialogue dataset. • cutoff_rule: Optional[CutoffRule]=None – only applies if mode='env_stops'. Implements a function which determines when the environment should stop interaction early. We use the default of visdial.visdial_base.PercentileCutoffRule(1.0, 0.5) in all our experiments. • yn_reward: float=-2.0 – the reward penalty that should be added for asking yes/no questions. • yn_reward_kind: str='none' – specifies the string match heuristic to be used for determining if a yes/no question was asked. Should be one of ['none', 'soft', 'hard', 'conservative']. • 'none': don't penalize yes/no questions. This corresponds to the standard reward in our paper. • 'soft': penalize a question if the response contains "yes" or "no" as a substring. • 'hard': penalize a question if the response matches exactly with the string "yes" or "no". This corresponds to the "y/n" reward in our paper. • 'conservative': penalize a question if the response satisfies one of several string matching heuristics. This corresponds to the "conservative y/n" reward in our paper. Returns: None #### __len__ def __len__(self) -> int Returns: the size of the dataset. #### __getitem__ def __getitem__(self, i: int) -> Scene Inputs: • i: int – the dataset index. Returns: an item from the dataset. ### VisDialListDataset: VisDialListDataset, implemented in src/visdial/visdial_dataset.py, wraps around VisDialogueData and converts it into a DataPoint format that can be used to train offline RL agents. #### __init__ def __init__(self, data: VisDialogueData, max_len: Optional[int], token_reward: TokenReward, top_p: Optional[float]=None, bottom_p: Optional[float]=None) -> None Inputs: • data: VisDialogueData – a Visual Dialogue data object that stores all the raw data. • max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated. • token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments. • top_p: Optional[float] – filter for the top_p performing percent of the data. If None, no data will be filtered. Used with %BC models. • bottom_p: Optional[float] – filter for the bottom_p performing percent of the data. If None, no data will be filtered. Returns: None #### size def size(self) -> int Returns: the size of the dataset. #### get_item def get_item(self, idx: int) -> DataPoint Inputs: • i: int – the dataset index. Returns: a DataPoint from the dataset. ### VDEnvironment: VDEnvironment, implemented in src/visdial/visdial_env.py, defines the Visual Dialogue environment, which our offline RL agents interact with at evaluation time. The environment involves connecting to a localhost server, which the Setup section describes how to spin up. #### __init__ def __init__(self, dataset: RL_Dataset, url: str, reward_shift: float=0.0, reward_scale: float=1.0, actor_stop: bool=False, yn_reward: float=-2.0, yn_reward_kind: str='none') -> None Inputs: • dataset: RL_Dataset – takes an RL_Dataset; specifically VisDialListDataset, as above. This dataset is used to select initial states. • url: str – the url for stepping the environment. Follow the instructions in the setup section for how to initialize the localhost webserver corresponding to this url. • reward_shift: float=0.0 – shift the reward by this amount. • reward_scale: float=1.0 – scale the reward by this amount. • actor_stop: bool=False – allow the actor to stop interaction early by generating a special <stop> token. • yn_reward: float=-2.0 – the reward penalty that should be added for asking yes/no questions. • yn_reward_kind: str='none' – specifies the string match heuristic to be used for determining if a yes/no question was asked. Should be one of ['none', 'soft', 'hard', 'conservative']. • 'none': don't penalize yes/no questions. This corresponds to the standard reward in our paper. • 'soft': penalize a question if the response contains "yes" or "no" as a substring. • 'hard': penalize a question if the response matches exactly with the string "yes" or "no". This corresponds to the "y/n" reward in our paper. • 'conservative': penalize a question if the response satisfies one of several string matching heuristics. This corresponds to the "conservative y/n" reward in our paper. Returns: None #### step def step(self, action: str) -> Tuple[WordleObservation, float, bool] Inputs: • action: Vocabulary – the environment's vocabulary Returns: an (observation, reward, terminal) tuple. #### reset def reset(self) -> WordleObservation Returns: an observation #### is_terminal def is_terminal(self) -> bool Returns: a boolean indicating if the interaction has terminated. ## Visual Dialogue Training and Evaluation Scripts Training scripts are in scripts/train/vis_dial/. script description train_bc.py Train a BC agent. train_chai.py Train a CHAI agent. train_cql.py Train a CQL agent. train_dt.py Train a decision transformer agent. train_iql.py Train an ILQL agent. train_psi.py Train an$\psi\$ -learning agent.
train_utterance.py Train an utterance-level ILQL agent.

Evaluation scripts are in scripts/eval/vis_dial/.

script description
eval_policy.py Evaluate an agent in the Visual Dialogue environment.
top_advantage.py Finds the questions which have the greatest and the smallest advantage under the model.
distill_policy_eval.py Prints out the result of eval_policy.py with error bars.

Here we outline how to load the Reddit comments data in our codebase and how to execute the environment. See the setup section above for how to setup the toxicity filter reward. The data and environment objects are loaded automatically by the config manager, but if you want to by-pass the config system and use the task with your own codebase, here's how you should load, execute, and configure these objects. The same settings described below can all be modified in the configs as well.

An example of how to load the Reddit comment environment:

from toxicity.toxicity_env import ToxicityEnvironment
from toxicity.reward_fs import toxicity_reward
from utils.misc import convert_path

data = RedditData(
indexes=idxs,
reward_f=toxicity_reward
)

env = ToxicityEnvironment(
data=data,
reward_f=toxicity_reward
)

print(env.reset())


The above script corresponds to how we configured the environment for our toxicity reward experiments, but if you want to configure the environment differently, there are a few arguments you can modify. These arguments can also change the task or reward. Below we describe all the different configurable parameters that our reward functions, RedditData, ToxicityListDataset, and ToxicityEnvironment take.

## Documentation

We document the parameters and methods for our different Reddit comment reward functions, RedditData, ToxicityListDataset, and ToxicityEnvironment, so that you know how to configure the environment yourself.

### reward functions:

Here we outline the 4 main reward functions we use for our Reddit comment task. Each of these rewards is implemented in src/toxicity/reward_fs.py.

#### toxicity_reward

from toxicity.reward_fs import toxicity_reward

reward_f = toxicity_reward()

Description:

The "toxicity" reward from our paper, which queries the GPT-3 toxicity filter. It assigns a value of "0" to non-toxic comments, a value of "1" to moderately toxic comments, and a value of "2" to very toxic comments.

#### toxicity_noised_reward

from toxicity.reward_fs import toxicity_noised_reward

reward_f = toxicity_noised_reward()

Description:

The "noised toxicity" reward from our paper, which is the same as toxicity_noised_reward but induces additional noise. Specifically, it re-assigns comments labeled as "1" (moderately toxic) to either "0" (non-toxic) or "2" (extremely toxic) with equal probability.

#### score_human_reward

from toxicity.reward_fs import score_human_reward
from utils.misc import convert_path

reward_f = score_human_reward(
indexes=None
)

Description:

The "upvotes real" reward from our paper, which gives a reward of +1 for positive upvote comments and -1 for negative upvote comments. This uses the ground truth upvotes in the data, so it only applies to comments in the dataset and cannot be used for evaluation. If you input a string not present in the data, it will error. The arguments to this function specify what data to load.

Inputs:

• reddit_path: str – a path to the data.
• indexes: List[int] – a split of indexes in the data to use. If None, it considers all the data.

#### model_reward

from toxicity.reward_fs import score_human_reward
from toxicity.toxicity_dataset import ToxicityListDataset
from toxicity.reward_model import RobertaBinaryRewardModel
from utils.rl_data import ConstantTokenReward
from utils.misc import convert_path

data = RedditData(
indexes=None,
reward_f=None
)

listdata = ToxicityListDataset(
data=data,
max_len=512,
token_reward=ConstantTokenReward(0.0)
)

model = RobertaBinaryRewardModel(
data=listdata,
device='cuda',
roberta_kind='roberta-base',
freeze_roberta=False,
reward_cuttoff=0.0
)

reward_f = score_human_reward(model=model)

Description:

The "upvotes model" reward from our paper, which gives a reward of +1 if the given model predicts that the comment will get a positive number of upvotes and a reward of -1 otherwise. The model checkpoint we used for our experiments is at: outputs/toxicity/upvote_reward/model.pkl

Inputs:

• model: RewardModel: the reward model implemented in src/toxicity/reward_model.py. The model should be first trained and loaded from a pytorch checkpoint.

### RedditData:

RedditData, implemented in src/toxicity/reddit_comments_base.py, stores the raw Reddit comments data.

#### __init__

def __init__(self, path: str, indexes: Optional[List[int]], reward_f: Optional[Callable[[str], float]], reward_cache: Optional[Cache]=None, reward_shift: float=0.0, reward_scale: float=1.0) -> None

Inputs:

• path: str – the path to the Reddit data.
• indexes: Optional[List[int]] – a list of indexes to create a split of the data. Randomly selected, training, validation, and test splits are in the json files:
• data/reddit_comments/train_idxs.json
• data/reddit_comments/eval_idxs.json
• data/reddit_comments/test_idxs.json
• reward_f: Optional[Callable[[str], float]] – the reward function to use.
• reward_cache: Optional[Cache]=None – a cache of reward values, so you don't have to recompute them everytime.
• reward_shift: float=0.0 – shift the reward by this amount.
• reward_scale: float=1.0 – scale the reward by this amount.

Returns: None

#### __len__

def __len__(self) -> int

Returns: the size of the dataset.

#### __getitem__

def __getitem__(self, idx: int) -> Scene

Inputs:

• idx: int – the dataset index.

Returns: an item from the dataset.

### ToxicityListDataset:

ToxicityListDataset, implemented in src/toxicity/toxicity_dataset.py, wraps around RedditData and converts it into a DataPoint format that can be used to train offline RL agents.

#### __init__

def __init__(self, data: RedditData, max_len: Optional[int], token_reward: TokenReward, cuttoff: Optional[float]=None, resample_timeout: float=0.0, include_parent: bool=True) -> None

Inputs:

• data: RedditData – a Reddit comment data object that stores all the raw data.
• max_len: Optional[int] – the maximum sequence length in the dataset, will truncate all token sequences to this length. If None, then sequences will not be truncated.
• token_reward: TokenReward – the token-level reward to apply to the sequences. We use a constant reward of 0 per-token for all experiments.
• cuttoff: Optional[float]=None – filter out all comments from the dataset with reward less than cuttoff. If None, no data will be filtered. Used with %BC models.
• resample_timeout: float=0.0 – when cuttoff is not equal to None, comments are stochastically sampled i.i.d. from the dataset, like an iterable, even though the dataset has a list-type interface. It uniformly re-samples from the dataset until it finds a comment with a reward that satisfies the cuttoff. In the case of the "toxicity" reward, this re-sampling can cause rate-limit errors on the GPT-3 API, so we allow you to add a resample_timeout to fix this issue: a timeout of roughly 0.05 should fix rate-limit issues.
• include_parent: bool=True – whether to condition on the parent comment in the thread. If False, models will be trained to generate comments unconditionally.

Returns: None

#### size

def size(self) -> int

Returns: the size of the dataset.

#### get_item

def get_item(self, idx: int) -> DataPoint

Inputs:

• i: int – the dataset index.

Returns: a DataPoint from the dataset.

### ToxicityEnvironment:

ToxicityEnvironment, implemented in src/toxicity/toxicity_env.py, defines the Reddit comment generation environment, which our offline RL agents interact with at evaluation time.

#### __init__

def __init__(self, data: RedditData, reward_f: Optional[Callable[[str], float]], reward_shift: float=0.0, reward_scale: float=1.0, include_parent: bool=True) -> None

Inputs:

• data: RedditData – the dataset used to select initial state parent comments to condition on.
• reward_f: Optional[Callable[[str], float]] – the reward function to use.
• reward_shift: float=0.0 – shift the reward by this amount.
• reward_scale: float=1.0 – scale the reward by this amount.
• include_parent: bool=True – specifies whether to condition on the previous comment or post in the Reddit thread.

Returns: None

#### step

def step(self, action: str) -> Tuple[WordleObservation, float, bool]

Inputs:

• action: Vocabulary – the environment's vocabulary

Returns: an (observation, reward, terminal) tuple.

#### reset

def reset(self) -> WordleObservation

Returns: an observation

#### is_terminal

def is_terminal(self) -> bool

Returns: a boolean indicating if the interaction has terminated.

## Reddit comment Training and Evaluation Scripts

Training scripts are in scripts/train/toxicity/.

script description
train_bc.py Train a BC agent.
train_iql.py Train an ILQL agent.
train_upvote_reward.py Train the upvote reward model.

Evaluation scripts are in scripts/eval/toxicity/.

script description
eval_policy.py Evaluate an agent in the Reddit comments environment.
distill_policy_eval.py Prints out the result of eval_policy.py with error bars.

All tasks – Wordle, Visual Dialogue, Reddit – have a corresponding environment and dataset implemented in the codebase, as described above. And all offline RL algorithms in the codebase are trained, executed, and evaluated on one of these given environments and datasets.

You can similarly define your own tasks that can easily be run on all these offline RL algorithms. This codebase implements a simple set of RL environment abstractions that make it possible to define your own environments and datasets that can plug-and-play with any of the offline RL algorithms.

All of the core abstractions are defined in src/data/. Here we outline what needs to be implemented in order to create your own tasks. For examples, see the implementations in src/wordle/, src/vis_dial/, and src/toxicity/.

## 1. Create an environment and define observations:

All tasks must implement subclasses of: Language_Observation and Language_Environment, which are in src/data/language_environment.py.

### Language_Observation:

This class represents the observations from the environment that will be input to your language model.

A Language_Observation must define the following two functions.

#### to_sequence

def to_sequence(self) -> Tuple[List[str, Optional[float]], bool]:

Description:

A function which converts the observation object into a standard format that can be input to the language model and used for training.

Returns:

1. a list of (utterance, reward) tuples. The tuples are meant to represent alternating environment interactions: your agent's utterance and the environment's response. Utterances corresponding to the environment response should have reward=None, and those corresponding to the agent's utterances should have reward=some_float.
2. a boolean indicating whether this observation is the last one in the interaction.

#### __str__

def __str__(self) -> str:

Description:

This is only used to print the observation to the terminal. It should convert the observation into some kind of string that is interpretable by a user.

Returns: a string.

### Language_Environment:

This class represents a gym-style environment for online interaction, which is only used for evaluation.

A Language_Environment must define the following three functions.

#### step

def step(self, action: str) -> Tuple[Language_Observation, float, bool]:

Description:

Just like a standard gym environment, given an action in the form of a string, step the environment forward.

Returns: a tuple of (Language_Observation, reward, terminal).

#### reset

def reset(self) -> Language_Observation:

Description:

This resets the environment to an initial state.

Returns: the corresponding initial Language_Observation

#### is_terminal

def is_terminal(self) -> bool:

Description:

Outputs whether the environment has reached a terminal state.

Returns: a boolean indicating if the environment has reached a terminal state.

### 2. Create a Dataset:

All tasks must implement subclasses of either List_RL_Dataset or Iterable_RL_Dataset or both, which are defined in src/data/rl_data.py.

### List_RL_Dataset:

This class represents a list dataset (or an indexable dataset of finite length) that can be used to train offline RL agents.

A List_RL_Dataset must define the following two functions.

#### get_item

def get_item(self, idx: int) -> DataPoint

Description:

This gets an item from the dataset at a given index.

Returns: a DataPoint object from the dataset.

#### size

def size(self) -> int

Description:

Returns the size of the dataset.

Returns: the dataset's size.

### Iterable_RL_Dataset:

This class represents an iterable dataset (or a non-indexable dataset that stochastically samples datapoints i.i.d.) that can be used to train offline RL agents.

A Iterable_RL_Dataset must define the following function.

#### sample_item

def sample_item(self) -> DataPoint

Description:

Samples a datapoint from the dataset.

Returns: a DataPoint object from the dataset.

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